Unconsciousness - first aid
Unconsciousness is when a person is unable to respond to people and activities. Often, this is called a coma or being in a comatose state.
Other changes in awareness can occur without becoming unconscious. Medically, these are called "altered mental status" or "changed mental status." They include sudden confusion, disorientation, or stupor.
Unconsciousness or any other sudden change in mental status must be treated as a medical emergency.
If someone is awake but less alert than usual, ask a few simple questions, such as:
- What is your name?
- What is the date?
- How old are you?
Wrong answers or an inability to answer the question suggest a change in mental status.
Loss of consciousness - first aid; Coma - first aid; Mental status change; Altered mental status
Being asleep is not the same thing as being unconscious. A sleeping person will respond to loud noises or gentle shaking -- an unconscious person will not.
An unconscious person cannot cough or clear his or her throat. This can lead to death if the airway becomes blocked.
Brief unconsciousness (or fainting) is often caused by dehydration, low blood sugar, or temporary low blood pressure. However, it can also be caused by serious heart or nervous system problems. Your doctor will determine if you need tests.
Other causes of fainting include straining during a bowel movement (vasovagal syncope), coughing very hard, or breathing very fast (hyperventilating).
The person will be unresponsive (does not respond to activity, touch, sound, or other stimulation).
The following symptoms may occur after a person has been unconscious:
- Amnesia for events prior to, during, and even after the period of unconsciousness
- Inability to speak or move parts of his or her body (see stroke symptoms)
- Loss of bowel or bladder control (incontinence)
- Rapid heartbeat (palpitations)
- Stupor (profound confusion and weakness)
- Do NOT give an unconscious person any food or drink.
- Do NOT leave the person alone.
- Do NOT place a pillow under the head of an unconscious person.
- Do NOT slap an unconscious person's face or splash water on the face to try to revive him.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call 911 if the person is unconscious and:
- Does not return to consciousness quickly (within a minute)
- Has fallen down or been injured, especially if bleeding
- Has diabetes
- Has seizures
- Has lost bowel or bladder control
- Is not breathing
- Is pregnant
- Is over age 50
Call 911 if the person regains consciousness but:
- Feels chest pain, pressure, or discomfort, or has a pounding or irregular heartbeat
- Can't speak, has vision problems, or can't move the arms and legs
- Avoid situations where your blood sugar level gets too low.
- Avoid standing in one place too long without moving, especially if you are prone to fainting.
- Get enough fluid, particularly in warm weather.
- If you feel like you are about to faint, lie down or sit with your head bent forward between your knees.
People with known medical conditions, such as diabetes, should always wear a medical alert tag or bracelet.
Cooke JL. Depressed consciousness and coma. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al., eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2009:chap 14.
Biros MH, Heegaard WG. Head injury. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al., eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2009:chap 38.
Kothari RU, Crocco TJ, Barsan WG. Stroke. In: Marx J, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2006:chap 99.
Last reviewed 7/20/2013 by Jacob L. Heller, MD, MHA, Emergency Medicine, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, Washington. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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