References: Conflict of Interest

Journal Articles Consulted in Creating the Policy

  1. Wazana A. Physicians and the Pharmaceutical Industry: Is a gift ever just a gift? JAMA. 2000;283:373-80)
  2. Dana J, Loewenstein G.A. social science perspective on gifts to physicians from industry. JAMA. 2003;290:252-5
  3. Kaiser Family Foundation. Prescription drug trends 2007. Kaiser Family Foundation; 2007.
  4. Adair RF, Holmgren LR. Do drug samples influence resident prescribing behavior? A randomized trial. Am J Med. 2005 Aug;118(8):881-4
  5. Backer EL, et al. The value of pharmaceutical representative visits and medication samples in community-based family practices. J Fam Pract. 2000:49:811-6
  6. Boltri JM, Gordon ER, Vogel RL. Effect of antihypertensive samples on physician prescribing patterns. Fam Med. 2002 Nov-Dec;34(10):729-31
  7. Chew, LD, et al. A Physician Survey of the Effect of Drug Sample Availability on Physicians' Behavior. J Gen Int Med. 2000;15: 478-483
  8. Tong KL, Lien CY. Do pharmaceutical representatives misuse their drug samples? Can Fam Physician. 1995;41:1363-1366
  9. Ubel PA, Jepson C, Asch DA. Misperceptions about beta-blockers and diuretics: a national survey of primary care physicians. J Gen Intern Med. 2003;18(12):977-83
  10. Cutrona SL, Woolhandler S, Lasser KE, Bor DH, McCormick D, Himmelstein DU. Characteristics of recipients of free prescription drug samples: A nationally representative analysis. Am J Public Health. 2008
  11. Westfall JM, McCabe H, Nicholas RA. Personal use of drug samples by physicians and office staff. JAMA. 1997;278:141-143. Comments in JAMA. 1998;279:1698-99
  12. Fugh-Berman, A. The Corporate Coauthor. J Gen Intern Med. 2005 June; 20(6): 546-548.
  13. Flanigan et al. "Prevalence of Articles with Honorary Authors and Ghost Authors in Peer-Reviewed Medical Journals." JAMA .1998. 280(3). 222-224.
  14. Relman, A. Separating Continuing Medical Education from Pharmaceutical Marketing. JAMA. 2001; 185: 2009-2012.
  15. Brennan, T. et al. Health Industry Practices that Create Conflicts of Interest. JAMA. 2006; 295: 429-433.
  16. Schneider JA, Arora V, Kasza K, Van Harrison R, Humphrey H. Residents' Perceptions Over Time of Pharmaceutical Industry Interactions and Gifts and the Effect of an Educational Intervention. Acad Med. 2006 Jul;81(7):595-602
  17. Wofford JL, Ohl CA. Teaching appropriate interactions with pharmaceutical company representatives: The impact of an innovative workshop on student attitudes. BMC Med Educ. 2005 Feb 8;5(1):5.
  18. Brendan B. McCormick et al., "Effect of Restricting Contact Between Pharmaceutical Company Representatives and Internal Medicine Residents on Posttraining Attitudes and Behavior," JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association 286, no. 16 (2001): 1994-1999.
  19. American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine. Position Paper: Physician-Industry Relations. Part 1: Individual Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2002;136:396-402.
  20. American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine. Position Paper: Physician-Industry Relations. Part 2: Organizational Issues. Ann Intern Med. 2002;136:403-406.
  21. Dana J, Loewenstein G.A. A social science perspective on gifts to physicians from industry. JAMA. 2003;290:252-5
  22. Griffith D. Reasons for not seeing drug reps. BMJ. 1999; 319: 69-70
  23. Abbasi K and Smith R. No More Free Lunches. BMJ 2003;326:1155-1156
  24. Orlowski JP and Wateska L. The effects of pharmaceutical firm enticements on physician prescribing patterns. Chest. 1992; 102:270-273.
  25. Neurath P. Ban on drug samples urged. Puget Sound Business Journal. June 2, 2006 2006.
  26. Donohue JM, Cevasco M, Rosenthal MB. A decade of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:673-681
  27. Steinbrook, R. "Commercial support and continuing medical education." NEJM 352(3):534-535. 2005

News and Other Articles:

  1. Gary W. Herschman and Mark S. Olinsky. The Physician Payments Sunshine Act. Health Care Compliance Assocation, October 2010.
  2. Jennifer R. Niebyl. The Pharmaceutical Industry: Friend or Foe? American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, April 2008.
  3. Stephanie Saul. Drug Makers Pay for Lunch as They Pitch. The New York Times, July 28, 2006.
  4. Daniel Carlat. Dr. Drug Rep. The New York Times. November 25, 2007.  
  5. Andrew Pollack. Stanford to Ban Drug Makers’ Gifts to Doctors, Even Pens. The New York Times, Sept 12, 2006. 

Links from the Association of American Medical Colleges

  1. COI in Clinical Care, new guidelines, June 2010
  2. Joint report on COI with the Association of American Universities, Februrary 2008


Other Links:

  1. Institute of Medicine as a Profession--Conflict of Interest Policy Database  
  2. PhRMA Code of Interactions with Healthcare Professionals
  3. Senator Grassley's "Physician Payments Sunshine Act"  
  4. NIH Office of Extramural Research Conflict of Interest  
  5. Physician Payments Sunshine Provisions in Health Care Reform Fact Sheet
  6. American Medical Student Association (AMSA) PharmFree Scorecard
  7. Institute on Medicine as a Profession's assessment of UI Carver College of Medicine's COI policies

Policies from other Academic Medical Centers:

Disclosure Form

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Eligible UI Health Care faculty and staff can access the online disclosure form here.

Additional Resources

Contact us:

Conflict of Interest Office
Joint Office for Compliance
University of Iowa Health Care
200 Hawkins Drive
Iowa City, Iowa 52242