The thyroid gland is located in the front of the neck, just below the voice box (larynx). It produces chemicals (hormones) that help the body control metabolism. Thyroid hormone is normally produced in response to another hormone released by the pituitary gland.
There are four main types of thyroid disease:
- Hyperthyroidism -- too much thyroid hormone
- Hypothyroidism -- too little thyroid hormone
- Benign (noncancerous) thyroid disease
- Thyroid cancer
For information about a specific type of thyroid disease, see one of the following:
- Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid
- Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's disease)
- Congenital goiter
- Medullary thyroid carcinoma
- Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II
- Painless (silent) thyroiditis
- Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid
- Subacute thyroiditis
- Thyroid cancer
- Toxic nodular goiter
Ladenson P, Kim M. Thyroid. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 244.
Last reviewed 5/23/2010 by David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.
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