Rotavirus antigen test

Definition

The rotavirus antigen test detects rotavirus in the feces. Rotavirus is the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in children.

How the test is performed

There are many ways to collect stool samples. You can catch the stool on plastic wrap that is loosely placed over the toilet bowl and held in place by the toilet seat. Then you put the sample into a clean container. One type of test kit supplies a special toilet tissue to collect the sample, which is then placed in a container.

For infants and young children wearing diapers, try lining the diaper with plastic wrap. If the plastic wrap is positioned properly, it will help prevent urine and stool from mixing to provide a better sample.

The sample should be collected during the acute phase of the infection, which is the period in which diarrhea is occurring.

The sample is taken to the laboratory for evaluation.

How to prepare for the test

No special preparation is necessary for this test.

How the test will feel

The test involves normal defecation.

Why the test is performed

Rotavirus is the leading cause of gastroenteritis ("stomach flu") in children. This test is performed to diagnose a rotavirus infection.

Normal Values

Normally, rotavirus is not found in the stool.

Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.

What abnormal results mean

Rotavirus in the stool indicates a rotavirus infection is present.

What the risks are

There are no risks associated with this test.

Special considerations

Because rotavirus is easily transmitted from person to person, thoroughly wash your hands after contact with a child who is infected or thought to be infected. Disinfect any surface that has been in contact with stool. A vaccine is available to help prevent severe rotavirus infection in children under 8 months old.

Monitor infants and children for signs of dehydration.

Figures

References

Semrad CE. Approach to the patient with diarrhea and malabsorption. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011: chap 142.

Giannella RA. Infectious enteritis and proctocolitis and bacterial food poisoning. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2010:chap 107.

Zulfigar AB. Acute gastroenteritis in children. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman Re, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 332.

Bass DM. Rotaviruses, calciviruses, and astroviruses. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman Re, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 257.

Revision

Last reviewed 5/30/2012 by Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director and Director of Didactic Curriculum, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington; and Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.

Disclaimers

  • The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.
  • A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions.
  • Call 911 for all medical emergencies.
  • Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites.
A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited. adam.com