A skull fracture is a fracture or break in the cranial (skull) bones.
Basilar skull fracture; Depressed skull fracture; Linear skull fracture
Skull fractures may occur with head injuries. The skull provides good protection for the brain. However, a severe impact or blow can cause the skull to break. It may be accompanied by concussion or other injury to the brain.
The brain can be affected directly by damage to the nervous system tissue and bleeding. The brain can also be affected indirectly by blood clots that form under the skull and compress the underlying brain tissue (subdural or epidural hematoma).
A simple fracture is a break in the bone without damage to the skin.
A linear skull fracture is a break in a cranial bone resembling a thin line, without splintering, depression, or distortion of bone.
A depressed skull fracture is a break in a cranial bone (or "crushed" portion of skull) with depression of the bone in toward the brain.
A compound fracture involves a break in, or loss of, skin and splintering of the bone.
- Head trauma
- Falls, automobile accidents, physical assault, and sports
- Bleeding from wound, ears, nose, or around eyes
- Bruising behind the ears or under the eyes
- Changes in pupils (sizes unequal, not reactive to light)
- Difficulties with balance
- Drainage of clear or bloody fluid from ears or nose
- Loss of consciousness
- Restlessness, irritability
- Slurred speech
- Stiff neck
- Visual disturbances
In some cases, the only symptom may be a bump on the head. A bump or bruise may take up to 24 hours to develop.
If you think someone has a skull fracture:
- Do NOT move the person unless absolutely necessary. Head injuries may be associated with spinal injuries.
- Do NOT remove protruding objects.
- Do NOT allow the person to continue with physical activities.
- Do NOT forget to watch the person closely until medical help arrives.
- Do NOT give the person any medicines before talking to a doctor.
- Do NOT leave the person alone, even if there are no obvious problems.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
- There are problems with breathing or circulation.
- Direct pressure does not stop bleeding from the nose, ears, or wound.
- There is drainage of clear fluid from the nose or ears.
- There is facial swelling, bleeding, or bruising.
- There is an object protruding from the skull.
- The person is unconscious, is experiencing convulsions, has multiple injuries, appears to be in any distress, or cannot think clearly.
Although no child is injury-proof, parents can take some simple steps to keep their children from getting head injuries.
Not all head injuries can be prevented. The following simple steps can help keep you and your child safe:
Kerr HA. Closed head injury. Clin Sports Med. 32 (2013) 273-287.
Heegaard WG, Biros MH, Head injury. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap 41.
Ling GSF. Traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 406.
Last reviewed 1/13/2014 by Jacob L. Heller, MD, MHA, Emergency Medicine, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, Washington. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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