Scrotal ultrasound is an imaging test that examines the scrotum, the flesh-covered sac that hangs between the legs at the base of the penis.
The testicles are the male reproductive organs that produce sperm and the hormone testosterone. They are located in the scrotum, along with other small organs, blood vessels, and a small tube called the vas deferens.
Testicular ultrasound; Testicular sonogram
How the test is performed
You lie on your back with your legs spread. The health care provider drapes a cloth or applies wide strips of adhesive tape across your thighs under the scrotum. The scrotal sac will be slightly raised, with the testicles lying side by side.
A clear gel is applied to the scrotal sac to help transmit the sound waves. A handheld probe (the ultrasound transducer) is then moved over the scrotum. The ultrasound machine sends out high-frequency sound waves, which reflect off areas in the scrotum to create a picture.
How to prepare for the test
No special preparation is needed for this test.
How the test will feel
There is little discomfort. The conducting gel may feel slightly cold and wet.
Why the test is performed
A testicle ultrasound is done to:
- Help determine why one or both testicles have become larger
- Find the reason for pain in the testicles
- Show how blood flows through the testicles
The testicles and other areas in the scrotum appear normal.
What abnormal results mean
Possible causes of abnormal results include:
- Collection of very small veins, called a varicocele
- Infection or abscess
- Noncancerous (benign) cyst
- Testicular torsion
- Testicular tumor
What the risks are
There are no known risks. You will not be exposed to radiation with this test.
In certain cases, Doppler ultrasound may help identify blood flow inside the scrotum. For example, Doppler ultrasound is very helpful in cases of testicular torsion, because blood flow to the twisted testicle may be reduced.
Berman L. The male reproductive system. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging. 5th ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 2008:chap 44.
Last reviewed 7/11/2012 by Ken Levin, MD, private practice specializing in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Allentown, PA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.
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