Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to gastrointestinal infection and skin rashes.
Nonpolio enterovirus infection; Echovirus infection
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Echovirus is one of several families of viruses that affect the gastrointestinal tract collectively called enteroviruses. These infections are common. In the US, they are most common in the summer and fall. You can catch the virus if you come into contact with stools contaminated by the virus, and possibly by breathing in air particles from an infected person.
Serious infections with ECHO viruses are less common, but can be significant. As many as 1 in 5 cases of viral meningitis is caused by an ECHO virus.
You may not have any symptoms. Symptoms depend on the site of infection but may include:
- Mouth sores (herpangina)
- Skin rashes
- Upper respiratory infection
- Sore throat
Signs and tests
Because the illness is often mild and has no specific treatment, specific testing for echovirus is often not done.
ECHO virus can be identified from:
ECHO virus infections almost always clear up on their own. No specific medicines are available to fight the virus. Immune system treatment called IVIG may help patients with severe ECHO virus infections who have a weakened immune system.
Complete recovery without treatment is expected in patients who have the less severe types of illness. Infections of organs such as the heart (pericarditis and myocarditis) may cause severe disease and can be deadly.
Complications vary with the site and type of infection. Myocarditis and pericarditis may be deadly while most other types of infection improve on their own.
Calling your health care provider
Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of any of the diseases listed above.
No specific preventive measures are available for ECHO virus infections other than hand-washing, especially when you are in contact with sick people. Currently, no vaccines are available.
Modlin JF. Introduction to the enteroviruses and parechoviruses.In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2009:chap 170.
Romero JR. Enteroviruses. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 387.
Last reviewed 10/6/2012 by David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.
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