Cysticercosis is an infection by a parasite called Taenia solium (T. solium). It is a pork tapeworm that creates cysts in different areas in the body.
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Cysticercosis is caused by swallowing eggs from T. solium, which are found in contaminated food. You can also become infected if you have the adult T. solium, in your system then swallow the eggs if you have not properly washed your hands after a bowel movement. You can get the condition if you eat pork, fruits, and vegetables contaminated with T. solium which have not been well cooked or cleaned. The disease can also be spread by contact with infected feces.
The disease is rare in the United States. It is common in many developing countries.
Most often, the worms stay in muscles and do not cause symptoms.
Symptoms that do occur depend on where the infection is found in the body:
- Brain -- seizures or symptoms similar to those of a brain tumor
- Eyes -- decreased vision or blindness
- Heart -- abnormal heart rhythms or heart failure (rare)
- Spine -- weakness or changes in walking due to damage to nerves in the spine
Signs and tests
Tests that may be done include:
- Blood tests to detect antibodies to the parasite
- Biopsy of the affected area
- CT scan, MRI scan, or x-rays to detect the lesion
- Spinal tap (lumbar puncture)
- Test in which an ophthalmologist looks inside the fundus of the eye
Treatment may involve:
- · Medicines to kill the parasites (antiparasitic treatments such as albendazole or praziquantel)
- · Powerful anti-inflammatory medications (steroids) to reduce swelling
If the cyst is in the eye or brain, steroids should be started a few days before other medicines. This is to avoid problems caused by swelling during antiparasitic treatment. Not all patients benefit from antiparasitic treatment.
Sometimes surgery may be needed to remove the infected area.
The outlook good, unless the lesion has caused blindness, heart failure, or brain damage. These are rare complications.
- Blindness, decreased vision
- Heart failure or abnormal heart rhythm
- Hydrocephalus (fluid build-up in part of the brain, often with increased pressure)
Calling your health care provider
If you have any symptoms of cysticercosis, contact your health care provider.
Avoid unclean foods, do not eat uncooked foods while traveling, and always wash fruits and vegetables well.
White AC Jr., Brunetti E. Cysticercosis. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 362.
Last reviewed 1/29/2013 by Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.
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